Industrial Battery Safety & Loss Prevention
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Industrial Battery Safety & Loss Prevention

Lead Acid Battery Maintenance and Safety Protocol


Lead-Acid batteries are physically large batteries that contain lead plates in a solution of acid to create electricity. They are a common power for many applications. Nationally, 2300 people are injured each year using lead acid batteries. Acid burns to the face and eyes comprise about 50% of these injuries as these batteries can easily explode. The remaining injuries were mostly due to lifting and dropping batteries as they are quite heavy.

Lead-Acid Battery Basics:

  • The electrolyte is a solution of sulfuric acid (35%) and water (65%). This solution can cause chemical burns to the skin and especially the eyes.
  • During normal operation, water is lost from a non-sealed (Flooded) battery due to evaporation.
  • During charging, lead acid batteries produce hydrogen and oxygen gases (highly flammable/ explosive) as electrolysis occurs.
  • Many lead acid explosions are believed to occur when electrolytes are below the plates in the battery and thus, allowing space for hydrogen/oxygen to accumulate. When the battery is engaged, it may create a spark that ignites the accumulated gases and causes the bettery to explode.

Standard Precautions:

  • Always store or recharge batteries in a well ventilated area away from sparks or open flame.
  • Damaged lead acid batteries shall be kept in properly labeled acid-resistant secondary containment structure.
  • Use only chargers that are designed for the battery being charged.
  • Always keep the lead acid battery vent caps securely in place.
  • If acid gets into your eyes, flush immediately with water for 15 minutes, and then promptly seek medical attention.
  • If acid gets on your skin, rinse the affected area immediately with large amounts of water. Seek medical attention if the chemical burns appear to be second degree or better.
  • Emergency wash stations should be located near lead-acid battery storage and charging areas.
  • Prevent open flames, sparks or electrical arcs in charging area.

Required Safety Equipment in the Battery Charging Area:

  • Plumbed tepid water safety shower and eye wash station.
  • Personal or Portable eyewash stations may be installed in the area immediate to the battery charging, if plumbed units can not be installed.
  • Non-vented safety goggles.
  • Face Shield (considered secondary but mandatory safety protection)
  • Acid resistant gloves.
  • Apron (acid resistant)
  • Steel-toed boots or foot guards if the battery is being lifted